What is a fixed income? How it works? – Forbes Advisor

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For most investors, stocks and bonds go together like peanut butter and jelly. These are the two main pillars of a well-balanced portfolio, the key ingredients to your long-term wealth.

While equities grab the headlines, fixed income securities are a more discreet source of cash flow and capital preservation. Often when stocks fall in value, fixed income securities gain in value, making them an important hedge.

The bond market is also much larger than the stock market. But deciding which types of fixed income securities you should own depends on factors such as your age and risk tolerance.

What is a fixed income?

A town wants to build a new school; a company seeks to increase its production. The federal government must support poor children. A company needs to increase its production.

These entities borrow money by selling bonds, which is just another word for fixed income securities.

Fixed income debt securities are issued with a specific maturity date and interest rate, called a coupon. During the life of the bond, interest payments are made regularly, usually twice a year. At maturity, the issuer repays the principal, or face value, of the security.

Reliable, on-time payments are why fixed income securities are such a sought-after asset, especially for older retirees. Of course, there are compromises.

Inflation can erode the value of the bond’s interest payments, while struggling companies may default on their debts.

And if you hold a basket of bonds in a mutual fund or exchange-traded fund, rising Federal Reserve interest rates could cause the value of your investment to decline.

How Fixed Income Works

To illustrate how fixed income securities work, suppose Acme Corporation needs to raise capital for a new production facility.

Acme has the highest possible bond rating and needs $10 million in funds. The company is preparing to sell bonds with a face value of $1,000.

If an investor buys a bond directly from Acme, they pay the face value. Bonds trade in the secondary market and can trade above par at a premium or below par at a discount.

Suppose we buy the bonds directly from Acme and hold them until maturity. The bonds pay 4% semi-annually on the face value of $1,000 and mature in 10 years.

In this scenario, each bond pays $40 per year in two installments of $20 each. After 10 years, when the bond matures, the bondholder will be repaid the principal of $1,000 and will have earned $400 in interest.

Types of fixed income securities

There are many different types of fixed income securities, and each has unique characteristics, including tax treatment.

Government bonds are the safest fixed income investments, especially those backed by US trust and credit.

  • Goods of treasure. Also known as treasury bills, treasury bills are issued with maturities ranging from a few days to 52 weeks. These are the shorter term government bonds and they do not pay a coupon. Investors buy these bonds at a discount to their face value and the return comes from the difference between the discounted purchase price and the face value received at maturity.
  • Cash notes. Also called T-notes, Treasury bills are issued with maturities between 2 and 10 years. Typical maturities are two, three, five, seven and 10 years. They pay a fixed coupon rate and are issued in $100 increments. The investor will receive semi-annual coupon payments during the life of the bond and principal at maturity.
  • Treasury bonds. Generally called T-bonds, these are the longest government bonds, issued with maturities of 20 and 30 years. Like T-notes, they are sold in $100 increments and pay the coupon semi-annually.
  • Treasury securities protected against inflation. Also called TIPS, these fixed income securities offer investors protection against inflation. The principal increases with inflation and decreases with deflation, as measured by the consumer price index (CPI). When the bond matures, the investor receives the greater of the inflation-adjusted principal or the original face value. TIPS pay interest twice a year at a fixed rate. Since the interest rate is applied to the adjusted face value, interest payments increase with inflation and decrease with deflation.
  • Municipal bonds. Commonly referred to as munis, state governments, municipalities, or other government agencies issue this form of fixed income. In most cases, municipal bonds offer significant tax advantages, such as exemption from federal income tax. You receive semi-annual payments and repayment of capital on the due date.
  • Corporate bonds. As the name suggests, companies sell these types of fixed income securities. The yield generally depends in part on the creditworthiness of the issuer. The higher the credit rating, the lower the coupon rate, as they are deemed more likely to repay the principal.
  • High yield bonds. Also known as junk bonds, these securities are typically issued with higher coupon rates than investment grade bonds due to lower credit ratings and higher risk of default.

Advantages of fixed income securities


Investors never want to have their eggs in one basket. Take 2008, for example. Stocks fell 37% in that terrible year, while Treasuries jumped 20%.

It’s true that stocks tend to beat bonds over the long term, but you better moderate your risk, especially in the short term.

Revenue generation

Due to the fixed coupon payments investors receive at specified intervals, bonds can provide a steady and predictable stream of income.

In the case of municipal bonds, the income is exempt from federal income tax and may be exempt from state income tax if the purchaser resides in the state where the bond was issued .

Capital preservation

Bonds make sense for the money you’ll need in five to ten years, an important consideration for retirees who are more sensitive to portfolio volatility because they have less time to recoup losses.

Fixed Income Securities Risks

Interest rate risks

Fixed income securities are very sensitive to changes in interest rates. When rates go up, bond prices go down. Conversely, when rates fall, prices rise.

These price changes affect the value of the fixed income investment. Fluctuations in interest rates tend to cause price volatility in the bond market, and the risk is higher for bonds with longer durations. This is one of the reasons why bond fund total return has performed so poorly throughout 2022.

Inflation risks

Bonds provide a steady stream of income, but the purchasing power of that income can deteriorate when inflation rises.

Credit risk

Credit risk is the extent to which a company might be likely to default, in which case the bondholder could lose some or all of their principal.

Although fixed income securities are subject to credit risk, credit ratings from bond rating agencies such as Moody’s Corporation or Fitch Ratings provide a reliable estimate of an issuer’s risk.

Highly rated securities are conservative and attractive investments for investors seeking capital preservation in addition to income. The lower the risk level of a bond, the lower the coupon payment.

Liquidity risks

This is the risk that a bondholder may not be able to sell a fixed income security due to a lack of buyers. In an illiquid market, an investor may be forced to sell at a lower price than he paid for the investment.

Appeal risks

It’s the worry that a borrowing entity, like a school district, is paying off its debt faster than expected, thereby foreclosing you of interest payments.

Although you can reinvest the principle elsewhere, you may need to do so on more unfavorable terms, depending on economic conditions.

How to invest in fixed income securities

Bonds always have a place in your investment portfolio. Young investors may take more risk and allocate more assets to stocks, but they will always have at least some money in bonds to diversify.

As investors age, risk tolerance decreases and fixed income allocation increases. In retirement, many investors choose a large allocation to fixed income securities because of their income and capital preservation needs.

Each investor should assess their risk tolerance and stage in the investor lifecycle to determine their asset allocation.

Although retail investors can buy bonds directly from the issuer, it can be difficult. Purchasing bonds on the secondary market through a broker could result in high transaction costs and high investment minimums. In addition, building a diversified bond portfolio requires significant investments.

The easiest way for the individual investor to access diversified fixed income investments is through bond mutual funds and bond exchange-traded funds (ETFs).

  • Fixed Income Mutual Funds. These funds are a popular way for average investors to hold fixed income securities. A mutual fund pools investors’ dollars and uses that capital to buy different securities, including bonds. There are different types of bond funds, and even funds that hold both stocks and bonds, such as balanced funds. These securities tend to contain a basket of bonds, giving you added diversification.
  • Exchange-traded bond funds (ETFs). Fixed income ETFs work the same way as mutual funds – investors pool their money and buy shares in the portfolio – but they are traded on a public exchange. You can find offers based on specific characteristics such as credit rating and term, among other characteristics.

Given the challenges that come with investing in fixed income securities, it’s always wise to seek advice from a paid financial advisor.

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